Kredit to HSFFYB , Pn Hasnita, Daphnee Lee dan Farah Rahim.
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Water Carbohydrates (energy source) Lactose Oligosaccharides (see below) Carboxylic acid Alpha hydroxy acid Lactic acid Proteins (building muscles and bones) Whey protein Alpha-lactalbumin HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumour cells) Lactoferrin Many antimicrobial factors (see below) Casein Serum albumin Non-protein nitrogens Creatine Creatinine Urea Uric acid Peptides (see below) Amino Acids (the building blocks of proteins) Alanine Arginine Aspartate Clycine Cystine Glutamate Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lycine Methionine Phenylalanine Proline Serine Taurine Theronine Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine Carnitine (amino acid compound necessary to make use of fatty acids as an energy source) Nucleotides (chemical compounds that are the structural units of RNA and DNA) 5’-Adenosine monophosphate (5”-AMP) 3’:5’-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3’:5’-cyclic AMP) 5’-Cytidine monophosphate (5’-CMP) Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP choline) Guanosine diphosphate (UDP) Guanosine diphosphate - mannose 3’- Uridine monophosphate (3’-UMP) 5’-Uridine monophosphate (5’-UMP) Uridine diphosphate (UDP) Uridine diphosphate hexose (UDPH) Uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-hexosamine (UDPAH) Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) Several more novel nucleotides of the UDP type Fats Triglycerides Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (important for brain development) Arachidonic acid (AHA) (important for brain development) Linoleic acid Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Conjugated linoleic acid (Rumenic acid) Free Fatty Acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Oleic acid Palmitoleic acid Heptadecenoic acid Saturated fatty acids Stearic Palmitic acid Lauric acid Myristic acid Phospholipids Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylinositol Lysophosphatidylcholine Lysophosphatidylethanolamine Plasmalogens Sphingolipids Sphingomyelin Gangliosides GM1 GM2 GM3 Glucosylceramide Glycosphingolipids Galactosylceramide Lactosylceramide Globotriaosylceramide (GB3) Globoside (GB4) Sterols Squalene Lanosterol Dimethylsterol Methosterol Lathosterol Desmosterol Triacylglycerol Cholesterol 7-dehydrocholesterol Stigma-and campesterol 7-ketocholesterol Sitosterol β-lathosterol Vitamin D metabolites Steroid hormones Vitamins Vitamin A Beta carotene Vitamin B6 Vitamin B8 (Inositol) Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E a-Tocopherol Vitamin K Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin Folic acid Pantothenic acid Biotin Minerals Calcium Sodium Potassium Iron Zinc Chloride Phosphorus Magnesium Copper Manganese Iodine Selenium Choline Sulpher Chromium Cobalt Fluorine Nickel Metal Molybdenum (essential element in many enzymes) Growth Factors (aid in the maturation of the intestinal lining) Cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) IL-2 IL-4 IL-6 IL-8 IL-10 Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) Platelet derived growth factors (PDGF) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Hepatocyte growth factor -α (HGF-α) HGF-β Tumor necrosis factor-α Interferon-γ Epithelial growth factor (EGF) Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) TGF β1 TGF-β2 Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (also known as somatomedin C) Insulin-like growth factor- II Nerve growth factor (NGF) Erythropoietin Peptides (combinations of amino acids) HMGF I (Human growth factor) HMGF II HMGF III Cholecystokinin (CCK) β-endorphins Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) β-defensin-1 Calcitonin Gastrin Motilin Bombesin (gastric releasing peptide, also known as neuromedin Neurotensin Somatostatin Hormones (chemical messengers that carry signals from one cell, or group of cells, to another via the blood) Cortisol Triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine (T4) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (also known as thyrotropin) Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) Prolactin Oxytocin Insulin Corticosterone Thrombopoietin Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) GRH Leptin (aids in regulation of food intake) Ghrelin (aids in regulation of food intake) Adiponectin Feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL) Eicosanoids Prostaglandins (enzymatically derived from fatty acids) PG-E1 PG-E2 PG-F2 Leukotrienes Thromboxanes Prostacyclins Enzymes (catalysts that support chemical reactions in the body) Amylase Arysulfatase Catalase Histaminase Lipase Lysozyme PAF-acetylhydrolase Phosphatase Xanthine oxidase Antiproteases (thought to bind themselves to macromolecules such as enzymes and as a result prevent allergic and anaphylactic reactions) a-1-antitrypsin a-1-antichymotrypsin Antimicrobial factors (are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. Leukocytes (white blood cells) Phagocytes Basophils Neutrophils Eoisinophils Macrophages Lymphocytes B lymphocytes (also known as B cells) T lymphocytes (also known as C cells) sIgA (Secretory immunoglobulin A) (the most important antiinfective factor) IgA2 IgG IgD IgM IgE Complement C1 Complement C2 Complement C3 Complement C4 Complement C5 Complement C6 Complement C7 Complement C8 Complement C9 Glycoproteins Mucins (attaches to bacteria and viruses to prevent them from clinging to mucousal tissues) Lactadherin Alpha-lactoglobulin Alpha-2 macroglobulin Lewis antigens Ribonuclease Haemagglutinin inhibitors Bifidus Factor (increases growth of Lactobacillus bifidus - which is a good bacteria) Lactoferrin (binds to iron which prevents harmful bacteria from using the iron to grow) Lactoperoxidase B12 binding protein (deprives microorganisms of vitamin B12) Fibronectin (makes phagocytes more aggressive, minimizes inflammation, and repairs damage caused by inflammation) Oligosaccharides (more than 200 different kinds!)